The course Principles of Animal Production (AS208) is offered to BSc Agriculture Honours students of Crop Science (Part III), Agricultural Economics (Part III), Applied Environmental Sciences (Part III) and Agricultural Engineering (Part III). The course covers the basic principles of beef, dairy, pig, poultry, small ruminants and draft animal production. Lecturers will be covered over 36 hours and practicals and field visits will be covered over and additional 10 hours. Tutorial sessions are offered at the end of every two sections. Course is coordinated by V.E. Imbayarwo-Chikosi but different lecturers will be invited to cover the different sections of the course. The coordinator will be available for consultations with the students between 1400 and 1600 hours daily. Individual consultations arrangements will be made by each of the guest lecturers for the different sections.
Mrs. S. Ncube - Poultry production (firstname.lastname@example.org);
Mr. S. Kagande - Pig production and small ruminants (email@example.com);
Mr. J. Gusha - Beef Production (firstname.lastname@example.org);
Mr. V.E. Imbayarwo-Chikosi - Dairy production (email@example.com) - COORDINATOR;
Mr. B. Masunda - Draft animals (firstname.lastname@example.org);
The knowledge acquired in this course will enable students to understand the problems of and opportunities available in animal production as well coordinate livestock issues with other agricultural disciplines. The course will enable students to have a working knowledge and appreciation of the contribution of livestock to the agricultural industry.
DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL SCIENCE
AS208: Principles of Animal Production
Contact hours: 36 hours
Coordinator: V.E. Imbayarwo-Chikosi
PURPOSE OF THE COURSE
This course is offered to BSc Agriculture Honours students in Crop Science (Part III), Agricultural Economics (Part III), Applied environmental sciences (Part III) and Agricultural Engineering (Part III).
The knowledge acquired in this course will enable students to understand the problems of and opportunities available in animal production as well coordinate livestock issues with other agricultural disciplines. Students will therefore have a working knowledge and appreciation of the contribution of livestock to the agricultural industry.
The course will cover the principles of production of the major ruminant and the non-ruminant livestock species: be beef, dairy, draft animals, goats, sheep, pigs and poultry. Sections will cover aspects of breed identifications, management and health management in outline. Different lecturers with specific expertise in area taught will be invited to present lectures.
This course is intended to give students an overview and appreciation of animal production. Students should be able to: -
Individual lecturers will give tests as they see fit after teaching their section(s).
POULTRY PRODUCTION: - Mrs Ncube: (6 hours)
i. Poultry industry in Zimbabwe;
ii.Breeds and systems of breeding;
iii.Incubation, hatchery practices and facilities;
v. Pullet rearing management systems and facilities;
vi. Broiler production, housing and other facilities;
vii.Management of waste;
PIG PRODUCTION - Mr. S. Kagande (6 hours)
i. Distribution and production: World, Africa, Zimbabwe;
ii.Production systems: intensive, semi-intensive, extensive, commercial, subsistence, integrated production (e.g. pig-fish; poultry-pig-fish);
iii. Breeds and breeding;
iv.Reproduction and growth processes;
v.Management of piglets from birth to mating;
- Management of sow and boar;
- Feeding standards- all age groups;
vi. Pig housing and other facilities;
vii. Health management;
iix. Pig products and carcass grading in Zimbabwe;
ix. Slaughter procedure and facilities
x. Management of waste;
xi. Marketing of pigs and their products in Zimbabwe.
BEEF PRODUCTION: - Mr. Gusha (7 hours)
i. Beef Industry in Zimbabwe;
ii. Systems of production: Pastoral, Agro-pastoral, ranching, Intensive, Extensive,
iii. Beef breeds, adaptability and breeding
- Productivity of Exotic vs Indigenous breeds
- Comparative adaptive advantages of Bos indicus
iv. Management of breeding cows
- Factors affecting cow productivity
- Choice of breeding and calving season
- Bulling rates, periods and mating management
- Pregnancy diagnosis, management at calving
v. Management of growing cattle
- Dehorning, Castration, Weaning and identification
vi. Nutrition of beef cattle
- Nutrient requirement and feeding standards
- Supplementary feeding of cattle on range
- Cattle fattening: feedlot and grass fattening
vii. Herd Health Management
iix. Transporting live cattle
ix. Slaughter of beef cattle
x. Meat quality and statutory requirements
DAIRY PRODUCTION - Mr. Imbayarwo-Chikosi (6 hours)
i.Breeds and breeding;
ii. Lactation and reproductive cycle;
iii. Calf rearing: principles, housing and structures;
iv. Dairy nutrition;
- Feeding standards - calves, replacement heifers, cows
iiv. Herd health management
iix. Housing systems;
ix. Clean milk production - statutory requirements;
x. Simple milking parlour designs;
xi. Milking: Manual vs machine milking
xii. Management of waste;
xiii. Marketing and the quality premium scheme;
DRAFT ANIMALS - Mr Masunda (4 hours)
ii. Initial handling
iv. Breaking to work
vii. Amount of work and feeding
SHEEP & GOAT PRODUCTION - Mr. S. Kagande (6 hours)
i. Distribution in World, Africa, Zimbabwe;
ii. Production systems
iii. Breeds and breeding
iv. General management: breeding females, young stock, sires
v. Nutrition and feeding standards – all classes of stock
vi. Grazing management
vii. Health management
ix. Wool and mohair production and technology
x. Slaughter facilities and quality meat production
Each lecturer will have: -
Available resources for teaching will include overhead and LCD projectors, DVD presentations and handouts.
Continuous assessment 30%
Final written examination 70%
Note: Students with a continuous assessment mark of below 40 % are not allowed to sit for the final examination.
Butterword, M.H. (1985) Beef Cattle production from Tropiccal Pastures: International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Gadd, J ,2005.Pig production,Nottingham ,University press
Hocking P.M (2009) Biology of breeing poultry . Wallingford., UK, Cambridge
Kyriazakis, Whittemore, 2006.Whittemore’s Science and practice of pig production, Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Lancashire smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe : Characterisation of feeds, assessment of effect of housing on mortality and hen reproduction . Mphil theses, University of Zimbabwe.
Maphosa T (2002). Studies on village poultry production in the Nharira-
Mpofu,Makuza, 2003.Pig production and technology. Upfront publishing, United kingdom
North M. A, (1990). Commercial chicken production manual (1990). West port
Oliver, J. (1987). The Dairy Handbook. National Association of Dairy Farmers of Zimbabwe.
Students will be evaluated through: -
The final examination - 70%
Continuous assessment - 30%
The Final examination will comprise of two section: -
Section A: Non-ruminants
This will have two compulsory questions on poultry and pigs.
Section B: Ruminants
students will be expected to answer three out of a possible four questions.
The continous assessment will comprise of: -
i. End of section tests - 50% of continuous assessment marks;
ii. Assignments - 30 % of continuous assessment marks;
iii. Field visit reports - 20% of continuous assessment marks.
Course grading will be: -
75% and above 1
65 - 74% 2.1
60 - 64% 2.2
50 - 59% 3
Less than 50% Fail