Introduction to Statistics

Naomi Wekwete

Course description



**NB: Sources given below are only a guide, candidates can access a variety of other statistical sources online

American Statistical Association (2010) Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education (GAISE) College Report.

Bluman A.G. (2014) Elementary Statistics: A Step by Step Approach, 9th Edition. McGraw-Hill Education, USA. (UZ Library)

Brite R.L. (1977) Business Statistics (Library)

Bryman, A. (2012) Social Research Methods, 4th Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Coolican, H. (2010).Research Methods and Statistics in Psychology, 5th Edition. Hodder Education.

Furlong, N., Lovelace, E. & Lovelace, K. (2000) Research Methods and Statistics: An Integrated Approach. San Diego: Harcourt College Publishers.

Groebner, Shanoon, Fry and Smith (2001) Business Statistics, 5th Edition. Prentice Hall.

Heiman G.W. (1998) Understanding Research Methods and Statistics: An Integrated Introduction to Psychology. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Hinkie, D. E. (1994) Applied Statistics Methods in Education and Pyschology, 3rd Edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Levin/Rubin Applied Elementary Statistics

Mayo, D. G. (1980) The Philosophical Relevance of Statistics. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1 (1) pp. 97-109.

Moore D.S., Notz W.I. and Fligner M.A. The Basic Practice of Statistics, 7th Edition.

Newbold P., Carlson W.L. and Thorne B. (2013) Statistics for Business and Economics, 6th Edition. USA: Pearson Education, Inc. and Dorling Kindersley Publishing, Inc.,. (Core-Textbook Collection)

Pagano, R. R. (1986) Understanding Statistics in the Behavioural Sciences, 2nd Edition. New York: West Publishing Company.

Remenyi D., Williams B., Money A. and Swartz E. (1998) Doing Research in Business and Management: An Introduction to Process and Method. London: Sage Publications.

Ross S. M. (2010) Introduction to Probability Theory, 10th Edition. Oxford: Academic Press.

Yeoman K.A.(1968) Statistics for the Social Scientists. Hammondsworth: Penguin.

E-Books Available from: ProQuest Ebook Central

Hand D.J. (2008) Statistics: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Available from: ProQuest Ebook Central.

Lee P.M. (2012) Bayesian Statistics: An Introduction, John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, New York. Available from: ProQuest Ebook Central.

Rugg G. (2007) Using Statistics: A Gentle Introduction, McGraw-Hill Education, Buckingham. Available from: ProQuest Ebook Central.

Russo R. (2003) Statistics for the Behavioural Sciences: An Introduction, Taylor and Francis, Hove. Available from: ProQuest Ebook Central.

Smithson M. (1999) Statistics with Confidence: An Introduction for Psychologists, SAGE Publications, London. Available from: ProQuest Ebook Central.


The course entitled, Introduction to Statistics is designed to introduce basic statistics to BSc. Honours in Population Studies Level One students. This is an introductory course that assumes no prior knowledge of statistics. The main objective of this course is to introduce and equip students with basic statistical concepts and techniques. The course aims at imparting knowledge and analytical skills to students in issues related to the following: descriptive statistics; presentation of data; probability; hypothesis testing; correlation and regression. The calculations will be done using spreadsheet software, such as Excel. The aforementioned issues are meant to enhance studentsí professional and academic performance in the subject.

Qualifications and Goals

  1. i.††††††† OBJECTIVES (Intended Learning Outcomes)

By the end of the semester, students must be able to:

  • Explain the basic concepts of descriptive and inferential statistics;
  • Present data graphical.
  • Calculate and interpret basic descriptive and inferential statistics;
  • Determine when, why, and how various statistical tests are used
  • Analyse data using spreadsheet software (e.g. Excel)
  1. i.††††††

Course content


  1. 1.†††††††††† Why Study Statistics?
  • Descriptive Statistics, Inferential Statistics and Decision Theory
  1. 2.†††††††††† Levels of Measurement and Frequency Distributions
  • Levels of measurements
  • Frequency Distributions
  • Presentation of Data - Bar Charts, Pie Charts, Boxplots, Scatter Plots, Histograms, Ogives, Line graphs
  • Tables †
  1. 3.†††††††††† Measures of Central Tendency
  • Mean, Median, Mode
  1. 4.†††††††††† Measures of Dispersion/Variability
  • Range, Interquartile Range
  • Standard Deviation
  • Variance of Discrete Data
  • Variance of Standard Deviation for Grouped Data
  • Skewness and Kurtosis
  1. 5.†††††††††† Probability
  • Basic Concepts
  • Basic Rules to Probability
  • Discrete Distributions - Binomial Distribution, Poisson Distribution
  • Continuous Distributions - Normal Distribution,
  1. 6.†††††††††† Hypothesis Testing
  • Kinds of Hypothesis - Null and Alternative
  • Types of Errors - Type I and Type II Errors
  • Hypothesis Testing †
  1. 7.†††††††††† Correlation
  • Bivariate Relationship - Cross tabulation, Chi-square Test
  • Strength of the Relationship
  • Standard Error of Estimate
  • Computing the Correlation Coefficient
  1. 8.†††††††††† Linear Regression Model
  • Understanding Linear Regression
  • Linear Regression Equation
  • Errors in Prediction, Predicting Variability
  1. 9.†††††††††† Multiple Regression Model
  • Multiple regression equation
  • Multicollinearity

Teaching-training activities


The course will be taught on the basis of three lectures per week and will be delivered in the form of lectures and presentations. The course will include three hours of lectures and a one hour tutorial per week over a fifteen week semester. All lectures are compulsory. If a student fails, s/he will take the course when it is next offered. The course does not have a pre-requisite.

Methods of evaluation

    1. a.††††† Assignments and Tests

Two assignment and three in-class tests will be written. Average marks for exercises and tests will constitute 25% of the final mark at the end of the semester.

  1. b.†††† Examination

Students will write a 2-hour examination at the end of the semester. The examination will encompass all material covered in the course and will constitute 75% of the final mark.

Manager(s) for DEM102 : Naomi Wekwete
Administrator for TSIME Online : Administrator
Phone : 18008
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