Advanced Mineralogy

HGL120
Shephard Mabhanga

Course description

Description

UNIVERSITY OF ZIMBABWE

 

GEOLOGY DEPARTMENT

 

BSc HONOURS GEOLOGY

 

Advanced Mineralogy: (HGL – 120)

 

Lecturer: Mr S Mabhanga

Contact Hours: 36 x 1hr lectures, 6 x 4 hr practicals

 

Objective:
Minerals are the basic building blocks of Earth materials, and a fundamental understanding of their properties is important for many fields within the Earth sciences. This course aims to: provide knowledge on the structural, chemical and physical characteristics of minerals, teach the identification of the common rock-forming minerals and to be able to identify rock forming minerals in a thin section.

 

Lectures

Basics of Optics

  1. Introduction to thin section making and to departmental petrological microscopes (Zeiss and James Swift and Prior)                                                                                        [30 Min.]         
  2. Electromagnetic Radiation                                                                                 [30 Min.]         
  3. Wave Front & Light                                                                                              [30 Min.]         
  4. Phase Interference                                                                                              [30 Min.]         
  5. Unpolarized & Polarized Light                                                                          [30 Min.]         
  6. Reflection & Refraction                                                                                       [30 Min.]         
  7. Polarization of Light                                                                                             [30Min.]         
  8. Relief                                                                                                                     [30 Min.]         
  9. Determination of Refractive index                                                                     [30 Min.]         

10. Becke Line (movement and how it is formed)                                                 [15 Min.]         

11. Isotropy & Anisotropy                                                                                          [30 Min.]         

12. Construction of Isotropic Indicatrix                                                                    [30 Min.]         

13. Interference & Retardation (Birefregence)                                                       [30 Min.]         

14. Interference at Upper Polar                                                                                [45 Min.]         

15. Quartz wedge & monochromatic light                                                              [30 Min.]         

16. Polychromatic Light (MIchel Levi)                                                                     [30 Min.]         

17. MIchel Levi & Quartz Wedge                                                                             [30 Min.]         

18. Extinction                                                                                                              [30 Min.]         

19. Accesory Plates                                                                                                   [30 Min.]         

20. Vibration direction in Mineral                                                                                   [1 hr]         

21. Sign of elongation                                                                                                      [1 hr]                     

22. Orthoscopic & Conoscopic Illumination                                                                 [1 hr]         

23. Pleochroism                                                                                                         [30 Min.]         

 

Uniaxial Optics

24. Light paths through uniaxial minerals                                                              [30 Min.]         

25. Uniaxial indicatrix                                                                                                [30 Min.]         

26. Birefreingence and interference colours                                                          [30 Min.]         

27. Extinction in uniaxial mienerals                                                                        [30 Min.]         

28. Pleochroism in uniaxial minerals                                                                      [15 Min.]         

29. Obtaining an interference figure                                                                        [45 Min.]         

30. Optic axis interference figure                                                                             [30 Min.]         

31. Formation of isochromes                                                                                    [30 Min.]         

32. Formation of isogyres                                                                                         [30 Min.]         

33. Optic sign determination (uniaxial)                                                                         [1 hr]         

34. Off centered optic axis (uniaxial)                                                                       [30 Min.]         

35. Flash figure                                                                                                           [15 Min.]         

36. Summary of uniaxial interference figures                                                        [15 Min.]         

 

Biaxial Optics

37. Biaxial indicatrix                                                                                                  [30 Min.]         

38. Comparison between Isotropic, uniaxial & Biaxial                                         [15 Min.]         

39. Optic sign determination (Biaxial)                                                                           [1 hr]         

40. Crystallographic orientation and the indicatrix                                                      [1 hr]         

41. Obtaining Biaxial interference figures                                                              [45 Min.]         

42. Acute bisectrix                                                                                                      [30 Min.]         

43. Formation of the isochromes                                                                             [30 Min.]         

44. Vibration directions and formations of the isogyres                                        [30 Min.]         

45. Rotation of the isogyres                                                                                      [15 Min.]         

46. Centered optic axis figure (Biaxial)                                                                  [30 Min.]         

47. Obtuse bisectrix figure                                                                                        [30 Min.]         

48. Optic normal or biaxial flash figure                                                                   [30 Min.]         

49. Off centered figures (Biaxial)                                                                             [30 Min.]         

50. Centered acute bisectrix                                                                                     [30 Min.]         

51. Centered obtuse bisectrix                                                                                  [30 Min.]         

52. Optic axis figure (opt.sign determination)                                                        [30 Min.]         

53. Optic normal or biaxial flash figure (opt.sign determination)                         [30 Min.]         

54. Optic normal or biaxial flash figure (opt.sign determination)                         [30 Min.]         

55. 2V Estimation                                                                                                       [30 Min.]         

 

Application (identifying of important features)

56. Identifying grains that are suitable to produce usable interference figures [45 Min.]         

57. Microscope Field diameter                                                                                 [30 Min.]         

58. Pleochroic scheme of uniaxial and biaxial minerals                                           [1 hr.]         

59. Plag.Composition                                                                                                [45 Min.]         

60. Alterations                                                                                                             [30 Min.]         

61. Exsolution& Zoning                                                                                             [30 Min.]         

62. Summary Uniaxial & Biaxial Int. Figures                                                         [15 Min.]         

63. Minerals in thin Section                                                                                      [30 Min.]         

64. Morphological Properties                                                                                   [30 Min.]         

65. Optical Properties of common rock forming minerals                                    [30 Min.]         

66. Some common thin section features                                                                [30 Min.]         

 

 

 

 

 

Practicals

 

  1. Familiarization of polarizing microscope and Refractive index determination using the Becke line                                                                                                                               4 hrs
  2. Crossed polarized light and interference colours                                                4 hrs
  3. Properties of uniaxial minerals (fast and slow directions, uniaxial interference figures on thin section, uniaxial interference figures on grain mounts, determination of optic sign)          4 hrs
  4. Properties of biaxial minerals (determination of optic sign)                                4 hrs
  5. Identifying common minerals of feldspars, quartz, mica                                     4 hrs
  6. Identifying of common minerals of pyroxenes, amphiboles, olivine                  4 hrs

 

Student Assessment

In addition to the final examination, assessment for this course will be composed of the following elements:

(1) Practical work (25 %)

• Continuous assessment of marked practical work

(2) Assignments (25 %)

(3) Semester test (50 %)

 

References

 

Berry, LG., Mason, B. and Dietrich, R.V. 1983. Mineralogy: Concepts, Descriptions and

Determinations. W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 561pp.

Cox, K.G., Price, N.B. and Harte, B. 1967. Crystals, Minerals, and Rocks. McGraw-Hill

Publishing Company Ltd, London. 233 pp.

Emiliani, C. 1997. Planet Earth: Cosmology, geology and the evolution of life and

environment. Cambridge University Press, New York, 719 pp.

Gribble, C.D. and Hall, A.J. 1985. A practical Introduction to Optical Mineralogy. George

Allen & Unwin Publishers Ltd., 249 pp.


Manager(s) for HGL120 : Shephard Mabhanga
Administrator for TSIME Online : Administrator
Phone : 18008
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